A Quick Primer on Neurofeedback: What Is It and How Does It Work?

A Quick Primer on Neurofeedback: What Is It and How Does It Work?

Neurofeedback is an exciting and promising field within applied neuroscience that focuses on the study of brainwave activity and its connection to cognitive function and behavior. Drawing from principles in neuroscience, psychology, and learning theory, neurofeedback leverages EEG technology to monitor the brain's electrical activity and provide real-time feedback that seeks to influence this activity. 

The ultimate goal of neurofeedback is to help optimize cognitive function and behavior by harnessing the brain's inherent ability to adapt and learn through neuroplasticity. Essentially, neurofeedback serves as a training ground, offering insights into mental patterns and empowering individuals to fine-tune their mental wellbeing.

Scientific Foundations of Neurofeedback

The evolving field of neurofeedback combines the following conceptual building blocks into an applied neuroscience practice seeking to help people fine-tune their mental performance.


Neuroplasticity is the foundational scientific principle behind neurofeedback, and it's a concept that has revolutionized our understanding of the brain. It refers to the brain's remarkable ability to reorganize and adapt by forming new neural connections throughout a person's life. Unlike a rigid, unchanging structure, the brain is dynamic and flexible, capable of learning and evolving in response to experience. 

In the context of neurofeedback, neuroplasticity is what makes training the brain possible. When you engage in neurofeedback, you're essentially teaching your brain to respond in specific ways to specific stimuli. Through repeated practice and reinforcement, the brain learns to produce desired brainwave patterns, and this learning is reflected in physical changes in the brain's neural pathways.

Here's how it works:

  • Stimulation and Response: During neurofeedback training, the brain is stimulated with specific feedback based on its current activity. This feedback serves as a signal, guiding the brain toward desired patterns.

  • Learning and Adaptation: As the brain responds to this feedback, it begins to learn what's expected. Over time, it becomes more adept at producing the desired brainwave patterns, adapting its activity in response to the feedback.

  • Physical Changes: This learning and adaptation are subsequently reflected in physical changes in the brain. Neural pathways that support the desired brainwave patterns become stronger, while those that don't may become weaker. This is the essence of neuroplasticity: the brain's structure and function can change in response to experience and learning.

  • Long-term Benefits: The changes brought about through neurofeedback aren't temporary. Because of neuroplasticity, the brain's new patterns can become ingrained, leading to long-term improvements in mental states and cognitive function.

Research has shown that activities like learning a new skill, recovering from an injury, or engaging in targeted mental training like neurofeedback can lead to measurable changes in the brain's structure and function.

Operant Conditioning

Operant conditioning is another fundamental concept in neurofeedback. It refers to a type of learning process where behavior is modified based on consequences, and it plays a vital role in neurofeedback training.

In neurofeedback, operant conditioning is applied to the brain's electrical activity. When specific brainwave patterns are detected, feedback is provided to the brain, either positive or negative, depending on the goals of the training. This feedback helps the brain learn to produce or reduce certain brainwave patterns.

For example, if a person is training to increase alpha wave activity associated with relaxation, they receive positive feedback when their brain produces more alpha waves. This positive reinforcement encourages the brain to continue producing these waves, reinforcing the relaxed state. Conversely, if the person drifts away from the desired state, neurofeedback provides cues or negative feedback to the brain to guide it back on track.

The process is akin to training a muscle. Just as you might use resistance training to strengthen a muscle, operant conditioning in neurofeedback strengthens specific neural pathways. By repeatedly reinforcing desired brainwave patterns and discouraging undesired ones, the brain learns to more easily and naturally produce those patterns.

This learning process is not instantaneous; it requires consistent training and practice. But over time, the brain becomes more adept at entering desired states, whether that's relaxation, focus, or something else. The power of operant conditioning in neurofeedback lies in its ability to help individuals gain control over mental states that might otherwise feel involuntary or elusive.

Brainwave Frequencies and Mental States

Brainwave frequencies are at the core of how neurofeedback operates, and understanding them is essential to grasping how this technology can influence mental states. Brainwaves are the rhythmic electrical impulses generated by the firing of neurons in the brain. These waves are categorized into different frequencies, each of which is associated with particular mental states and cognitive functions.

Brainwaves are divided into five main categories based on their frequency: Delta, Theta, Alpha, Beta, and Gamma. Each frequency range corresponds to different mental activities and states of consciousness.

  • Delta Waves (0.5-4 Hz): Associated with deep, dreamless sleep and restorative healing

  • Theta Waves (4-8 Hz): Linked to creativity, insight, deep relaxation, and meditation

  • Alpha Waves (8-12 Hz): Represent a calm and relaxed state, often present during mindfulness and meditation

  • Beta Waves (12-30 Hz): Indicative of focused concentration, problem-solving, and active thinking

  • Gamma Waves (30-100 Hz): Associated with high-level cognitive processing, memory formation, and complex thought.

It's essential to recognize that the brain doesn't operate on a single frequency at any given time. All the different frequencies are active simultaneously, creating a complex symphony of activity. Neurofeedback helps to fine-tune this symphony, emphasizing or de-emphasizing particular frequencies to achieve desired mental states.

Each individual has a unique pattern of brainwave activity. Neurofeedback practitioners analyze these patterns to tailor interventions that target specific frequencies, helping individuals achieve desired mental states such as relaxation or focus.

EEG Technology

Electroencephalogram (EEG) technology is the last critical component of neurofeedback as it is the tool that makes real-time monitoring and manipulation of brainwave patterns possible.

EEG is a non-invasive procedure that allows for the measurement of electrical activity in the brain through electrodes placed on the scalp.  These electrodes detect the tiny electrical signals produced by neurons as they communicate with each other. The signals are then amplified and recorded, creating a trace or graph of brainwave patterns.

EEG technology allows for the analysis of specific brainwave frequencies and their correlation with different mental states and cognitive processes. This analysis forms the basis for targeted neurofeedback interventions.  By analyzing an individual's unique brainwave patterns, practitioners can develop personalized neurofeedback protocols. These tailored interventions aim to help individuals achieve specific mental states or cognitive goals.

Neurofeedback Applications

The field of neurofeedback has been subject to research and studies for many years, and numerous scientific papers and publications support its effectiveness in various applications, including stress management, cognitive enhancement, and behavioral conditions like ADHD. Neurofeedback is used by healthcare professionals, psychologists, therapists, coaches and researchers to help individuals improve their brain function and overall mental wellbeing.

Here is a brief list of the many neurofeedback applications that have been researched and successfully applied to individuals:

Enhanced Cognitive Performance:

Neurofeedback can boost cognitive performance by targeting specific brainwave frequencies associated with focus, attention, memory, and problem-solving. Training the brain to optimize these frequencies can lead to improved academic and professional performance. This is the conclusion of a comparative review of EEG research which found 23 studies where neurofeedback training was found to improve cognitive performance in several domains, including attention, memory, and executive functions.

Emotional Regulation

Neurofeedback has been found to also be effective in improving emotional regulation by training individuals to control their brainwave patterns. By influencing patterns linked to emotional states, neurofeedback can aid in managing stress, anxiety, and other emotional challenges. This improved emotional regulation can have a profound impact on overall wellbeing and mental health. 

According to a literature review  in the Journal of Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, “studies have shown that neurofeedback can enhance emotional regulation in patients with anxiety disorders. The training allows them to better manage their emotional responses."

Stress Reduction and Relaxation

Neurofeedback training can promote relaxation by increasing alpha wave activity, which is linked to a calm and meditative state. This can help reduce stress levels and improve the ability to cope with everyday challenges.  For example, one Canadian study found that “alpha brainwave neurofeedback training daily for 7 days had positive psychological results” reducing indices of stress and anxiety among test subjects vs. a control group.

Peak Performance States

Athletes, artists, and professionals seeking to achieve peak performance can benefit from neurofeedback. By fine-tuning brainwave patterns associated with their specific domains of creativity, they can reach heightened states of concentration and flow.  A comprehensive review of studies on the use of neurofeedback for the achievement of peak performance found that  neurofeedback training has been shown to enhance performance in a variety of domains including sports, arts, and professional activities.  According to the review, “by allowing individuals to observe and modify their brainwave patterns, they can learn to achieve heightened states of concentration and flow, leading to peak performance."

Deepening Meditation and Mindfulness

For those engaged in meditation and mindfulness practices, neurofeedback can facilitate deeper states of meditation by guiding the brain into frequencies linked to meditative states, such as theta and alpha. Research studies have found that alpha states are often associated with meditation and deep calmness, and increases in alpha result in increased relaxation.

Similarly, a review of neurofeedback and meditation literature concludes that "neurofeedback may help individuals develop their meditation practice more rapidly” as a result of an increase capacity for self-regulation.

Enhanced Sleep

Neurofeedback can also be utilized to address sleep issues. Training the brain to enter specific brainwave states conducive to relaxation and sleep can help improve sleep quality and duration. A comprehensive review of 12 studies published in the World Journal of Psychiatry found a clear improvement in subjective sleep through neurofeedback training. 

Another systematic review of neurofeedback training (NFT) for cognitive performance improvement found promising results in its ability to enhance various cognitive functions, including sleep quality. These findings collectively point to the potential of neurofeedback in addressing sleep-related issues and enhancing overall sleep quality

ADHD Management 

Neurofeedback has shown promise as a non-pharmaceutical approach to managing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Training the brain to increase attention-focused brainwave frequencies may lead to improved focus and impulse control. According to a recent review of the practices of neurofeedback on the treatment of ADHD suggest that SMR neurofeedback training reduces inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptoms in ADHD children to the same extent as traditional treatments. 

Similarly, another systematic review of recent studies on the application of neurofeedback training and ADHD symptoms concluded that NFT “can be considered a non-pharmacological treatment option for ADHD with evidence of treatment effects that are sustained when treatment is completed and withdrawn.”  This evidence strongly suggests that neurofeedback can be an effective intervention for ADHD management.

Complementary Treatment for Mental Health Conditions

Neurofeedback is used as a complementary treatment for various mental health conditions, such as anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and more. By regulating brainwave activity, it may aid in symptom reduction and overall mental well-being.

Overall, neurofeedback seeks to deliver a wide range of benefits by empowering individuals to understand and optimize their brain's functioning. It is a versatile and powerful tool that can be tailored to address individual goals and challenges, making it valuable for self-improvement enthusiasts, as well as in clinical and therapeutic settings.

Individual Variability

It's important to note that while EEG-based neurofeedback can be a valuable tool for achieving specific mental states, individual responses may vary. Additionally, neurofeedback training should not be used as a substitute for professional medical advice or treatment. As with any self-improvement technique, it's essential to explore and discover what works best for each individual's unique needs and goals.

Enophones: your personal gateway to Neurofeedback training

Enophones represent a groundbreaking fusion of cutting-edge headphone technology and the remarkable benefits of EEG monitoring. With Enophones, tracking your brain activity becomes incredibly easy, enabling you to embark on a journey of cognitive optimization through the power of neurofeedback. 

By leveraging neurofeedback tools and techniques, Enophones empower you to improve your ability to reach and sustain desired mental states, such as enhancing your ability to focus, harness creativity, achieve flow states, and deepen your relaxation. 

Enophones take the remarkable benefits of neurofeedback out of research labs and doctor offices and into your hands. Our hope is that Enophones help you achieve a deeper sense of mental wellbeing.

Additional resources

If you’d like to dive deeper into the science and history of neurofeedback, here are a couple of excellent jumping off points:

Review of EEG Neurofeedback methods and practices

EEG-neurofeedback for optimizing performanceI: A review of cognitive and affective outcome in healthy participants

Comprehensive Bibliography of Neurofeedback Research

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